Postgres Plus Advanced Server Oracle Compatibility Developer's Guide : 5.6 Trigger Examples

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Postgres Plus Advanced Server Oracle Compatibility Developer's Guide

 

5.6 Trigger Examples

The following sections illustrate an example of each type of trigger.

5.6.1 Before Statement-Level Trigger

The following is an example of a simple before statement-level trigger that displays a message prior to an insert operation on the emp table.

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER emp_alert_trig
    BEFORE INSERT ON emp
BEGIN
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('New employees are about to be added');
END;

The following INSERT is constructed so that several new rows are inserted upon a single execution of the command. For each row that has an employee id between 7900 and 7999, a new row is inserted with an employee id incremented by 1000. The following are the results of executing the command when three new rows are inserted.

INSERT INTO emp (empno, ename, deptno) SELECT empno + 1000, ename, 40
    FROM emp WHERE empno BETWEEN 7900 AND 7999;

New employees are about to be added

SELECT empno, ename, deptno FROM emp WHERE empno BETWEEN 8900 AND 8999;

     EMPNO ENAME          DEPTNO
---------- ---------- ----------
      8900 JAMES              40
      8902 FORD               40
      8934 MILLER             40

The message, New employees are about to be added, is displayed once by the firing of the trigger even though the result is the addition of three new rows.

5.6.2 After Statement-Level Trigger

The following is an example of an after statement-level trigger. Whenever an insert, update, or delete operation occurs on the emp table, a row is added to the empauditlog table recording the date, user, and action.

CREATE TABLE empauditlog (
    audit_date      DATE,
    audit_user      VARCHAR2(20),
    audit_desc      VARCHAR2(20)
);
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER emp_audit_trig
    AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON emp
DECLARE
    v_action        VARCHAR2(20);
BEGIN
    IF INSERTING THEN
        v_action := 'Added employee(s)';
    ELSIF UPDATING THEN
        v_action := 'Updated employee(s)';
    ELSIF DELETING THEN
        v_action := 'Deleted employee(s)';
    END IF;
    INSERT INTO empauditlog VALUES (SYSDATE, USER,
        v_action);
END;

In the following sequence of commands, two rows are inserted into the emp table using two INSERT commands. The sal and comm columns of both rows are updated with one UPDATE command. Finally, both rows are deleted with one DELETE command.

INSERT INTO emp VALUES (9001,'SMITH','ANALYST',7782,SYSDATE,NULL,NULL,10);

INSERT INTO emp VALUES (9002,'JONES','CLERK',7782,SYSDATE,NULL,NULL,10);

UPDATE emp SET sal = 4000.00, comm = 1200.00 WHERE empno IN (9001, 9002);

DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno IN (9001, 9002);

SELECT TO_CHAR(AUDIT_DATE,'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS') AS "AUDIT DATE",
    audit_user, audit_desc FROM empauditlog ORDER BY 1 ASC;

AUDIT DATE         AUDIT_USER           AUDIT_DESC
------------------ -------------------- --------------------
31-MAR-05 14:59:48 SYSTEM               Added employee(s)
31-MAR-05 15:00:07 SYSTEM               Added employee(s)
31-MAR-05 15:00:19 SYSTEM               Updated employee(s)
31-MAR-05 15:00:34 SYSTEM               Deleted employee(s)

The contents of the empauditlog table show how many times the trigger was fired - once each for the two inserts, once for the update (even though two rows were changed) and once for the deletion (even though two rows were deleted).

5.6.3 Before Row-Level Trigger

The following example is a before row-level trigger that calculates the commission of every new employee belonging to department 30 that is inserted into the emp table.

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER emp_comm_trig
    BEFORE INSERT ON emp
    FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
    IF :NEW.deptno = 30 THEN
        :NEW.comm := :NEW.sal * .4;
    END IF;
END;

The listing following the addition of the two employees shows that the trigger computed their commissions and inserted it as part of the new employee rows.

INSERT INTO emp VALUES (9005,'ROBERS','SALESMAN',7782,SYSDATE,3000.00,NULL,30);

INSERT INTO emp VALUES (9006,'ALLEN','SALESMAN',7782,SYSDATE,4500.00,NULL,30);

SELECT * FROM emp WHERE empno IN (9005, 9006);

     EMPNO ENAME      JOB              MGR HIREDATE         SAL       COMM     DEPTNO
---------- ---------- --------- ---------- --------- ---------- ---------- ----------
      9005 ROBERS     SALESMAN        7782 01-APR-05       3000       1200         30
      9006 ALLEN      SALESMAN        7782 01-APR-05       4500       1800         30

5.6.4 After Row-Level Trigger

The following example is an after row-level trigger. When a new employee row is inserted, the trigger adds a new row to the jobhist table for that employee. When an existing employee is updated, the trigger sets the enddate column of the latest jobhist row (assumed to be the one with a null enddate) to the current date and inserts a new jobhist row with the employee’s new information. Finally, trigger adds a row to the empchglog table with a description of the action.

CREATE TABLE empchglog (
    chg_date        DATE,
    chg_desc        VARCHAR2(30)
);
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER emp_chg_trig
    AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON emp
    FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
    v_empno         emp.empno%TYPE;
    v_deptno        emp.deptno%TYPE;
    v_dname         dept.dname%TYPE;
    v_action        VARCHAR2(7);
    v_chgdesc       jobhist.chgdesc%TYPE;
BEGIN
    IF INSERTING THEN
        v_action := 'Added';
        v_empno := :NEW.empno;
        v_deptno := :NEW.deptno;
        INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (:NEW.empno, SYSDATE, NULL,
            :NEW.job, :NEW.sal, :NEW.comm, :NEW.deptno, 'New Hire');
    ELSIF UPDATING THEN
        v_action := 'Updated';
        v_empno := :NEW.empno;
        v_deptno := :NEW.deptno;
        v_chgdesc := '';
        IF NVL(:OLD.ename, '-null-') != NVL(:NEW.ename, '-null-') THEN
            v_chgdesc := v_chgdesc || 'name, ';
        END IF;
        IF NVL(:OLD.job, '-null-') != NVL(:NEW.job, '-null-') THEN
            v_chgdesc := v_chgdesc || 'job, ';
        END IF;
        IF NVL(:OLD.sal, -1) != NVL(:NEW.sal, -1) THEN
            v_chgdesc := v_chgdesc || 'salary, ';
        END IF;
        IF NVL(:OLD.comm, -1) != NVL(:NEW.comm, -1) THEN
            v_chgdesc := v_chgdesc || 'commission, ';
        END IF;
        IF NVL(:OLD.deptno, -1) != NVL(:NEW.deptno, -1) THEN
            v_chgdesc := v_chgdesc || 'department, ';
        END IF;
        v_chgdesc := 'Changed ' || RTRIM(v_chgdesc, ', ');
        UPDATE jobhist SET enddate = SYSDATE WHERE empno = :OLD.empno
            AND enddate IS NULL;
        INSERT INTO jobhist VALUES (:NEW.empno, SYSDATE, NULL,
            :NEW.job, :NEW.sal, :NEW.comm, :NEW.deptno, v_chgdesc);
    ELSIF DELETING THEN
        v_action := 'Deleted';
        v_empno := :OLD.empno;
        v_deptno := :OLD.deptno;
    END IF;

    INSERT INTO empchglog VALUES (SYSDATE,
        v_action || ' employee # ' || v_empno);  
END;

In the first sequence of commands shown below, two employees are added using two separate INSERT commands and then both are updated using a single UPDATE command. The contents of the jobhist table shows the action of the trigger for each affected row - two new hire entries for the two new employees and two changed commission records for the updated commissions on the two employees. The empchglog table also shows the trigger was fired a total of four times, once for each action on the two rows.

INSERT INTO emp VALUES (9003,'PETERS','ANALYST',7782,SYSDATE,5000.00,NULL,40);

INSERT INTO emp VALUES (9004,'AIKENS','ANALYST',7782,SYSDATE,4500.00,NULL,40);

UPDATE emp SET comm = sal * 1.1 WHERE empno IN (9003, 9004);

SELECT * FROM jobhist WHERE empno IN (9003, 9004);

     EMPNO STARTDATE ENDDATE   JOB              SAL       COMM     DEPTNO CHGDESC
---------- --------- --------- --------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------------
      9003 31-MAR-05 31-MAR-05 ANALYST         5000                    40 New Hire
      9004 31-MAR-05 31-MAR-05 ANALYST         4500                    40 New Hire
      9003 31-MAR-05           ANALYST         5000       5500         40 Changed commission
      9004 31-MAR-05           ANALYST         4500       4950         40 Changed commission

SELECT * FROM empchglog;

CHG_DATE  CHG_DESC
--------- ------------------------------
31-MAR-05 Added employee # 9003
31-MAR-05 Added employee # 9004
31-MAR-05 Updated employee # 9003
31-MAR-05 Updated employee # 9004

Finally, both employees are deleted with a single DELETE command. The empchglog table now shows the trigger was fired twice, once for each deleted employee.

DELETE FROM emp WHERE empno IN (9003, 9004);

SELECT * FROM empchglog;

CHG_DATE  CHG_DESC
--------- ------------------------------
31-MAR-05 Added employee # 9003
31-MAR-05 Added employee # 9004
31-MAR-05 Updated employee # 9003
31-MAR-05 Updated employee # 9004
31-MAR-05 Deleted employee # 9003
31-MAR-05 Deleted employee # 9004

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