REVOKE -- remove access privileges.
REVOKE command revokes previously granted privileges from one or more roles. The key word
PUBLIC refers to the implicitly defined group of all roles.
See the description of the
GRANT command for the meaning of the privilege types.
Note that any particular role will have the sum of privileges granted directly to it, privileges granted to any role it is presently a member of, and privileges granted to
PUBLIC. Thus, for example, revoking
SELECT privilege from
PUBLIC does not necessarily mean that all roles have lost
SELECT privilege on the object: those who have it granted directly or via another role will still have it.
If the privilege had been granted with the grant option, the grant option for the privilege is revoked as well as the privilege, itself.
If a user holds a privilege with grant option and has granted it to other users then the privileges held by those other users are called dependent privileges. If the privilege or the grant option held by the first user is being revoked and dependent privileges exist, those dependent privileges are also revoked if
CASCADE is specified, else the revoke action will fail. This recursive revocation only affects privileges that were granted through a chain of users that is traceable to the user that is the subject of this
REVOKE command. Thus, the affected users may effectively keep the privilege if it was also granted through other users.
CASCADE is not an option compatible with Oracle databases. By default Oracle always cascades dependent privileges, but Advanced Server requires the
CASCADE keyword to be explicitly given, otherwise the
REVOKE command will fail.
When revoking membership in a role,
GRANT OPTION is instead called
ADMIN OPTION, but the behavior is similar.
A user can only revoke privileges that were granted directly by that user. If, for example, user
A has granted a privilege with grant option to user
B, and user
B has in turned granted it to user
C, then user
A cannot revoke the privilege directly from
C. Instead, user
A could revoke the grant option from user
B and use the
CASCADE option so that the privilege is in turn revoked from user
C. For another example, if both
B have granted the same privilege to
A can revoke his own grant but not
B’s grant, so
C will still effectively have the privilege.
When a non-owner of an object attempts to
REVOKE privileges on the object, the command will fail outright if the user has no privileges whatsoever on the object. As long as some privilege is available, the command will proceed, but it will revoke only those privileges for which the user has grant options. The
REVOKE ALL PRIVILEGES forms will issue a warning message if no grant options are held, while the other forms will issue a warning if grant options for any of the privileges specifically named in the command are not held. (In principle these statements apply to the object owner as well, but since the owner is always treated as holding all grant options, the cases can never occur.)
If a superuser chooses to issue a
REVOKE command, the command is performed as though it were issued by the owner of the affected object. Since all privileges ultimately come from the object owner (possibly indirectly via chains of grant options), it is possible for a superuser to revoke all privileges, but this may require use of
CASCADE as stated above.
REVOKE can also be done by a role that is not the owner of the affected object, but is a member of the role that owns the object, or is a member of a role that holds privileges
WITH GRANT OPTION on the object. In this case the command is performed as though it were issued by the containing role that actually owns the object or holds the privileges
WITH GRANT OPTION. For example, if table
t1 is owned by role
g1, of which role
u1 is a member, then
u1 can revoke privileges on
t1 that are recorded as being granted by
g1. This would include grants made by
u1 as well as by other members of role
If the role executing
REVOKE holds privileges indirectly via more than one role membership path, it is unspecified which containing role will be used to perform the command. In such cases it is best practice to use
SET ROLE to become the specific role you want to do the
REVOKE as. Failure to do so may lead to revoking privileges other than the ones you intended, or not revoking anything at all.
The Advanced Server
ALTER ROLE command also supports syntax that revokes the system privileges required to create a public or private database link, or exemptions from fine-grained access control policies (
ALTER ROLE syntax is functionally equivalent to the respective
REVOKE command, compatible with Oracle databases.
Revoke insert privilege for the public on table
Revoke all privileges from user
mary on view
Note that this actually means “revoke all privileges that I granted”.
Revoke membership in role
admins from user
CONNECT privilege from user
CREATE DATABASE LINK privilege from user
EXEMPT ACCESS POLICY privilege from user