Handling Stray Values in a LIST or RANGE Partitioned Table v10

A DEFAULT or MAXVALUE partition or subpartition will capture any rows that do not meet the other partitioning rules defined for a table.

Defining a DEFAULT Partition

A DEFAULT partition will capture any rows that do not fit into any other partition in a LIST partitioned (or subpartitioned) table. If you do not include a DEFAULT rule, any row that does not match one of the values in the partitioning constraints will result in an error. Each LIST partition or subpartition may have its own DEFAULT rule.

The syntax of a DEFAULT rule is:

PARTITION [<partition_name>] VALUES (DEFAULT)

Where partition_name specifies the name of the partition or subpartition that will store any rows that do not match the rules specified for other partitions.

The last example created a list partitioned table in which the server decided which partition to store the data based upon the value of the country column. If you attempt to add a row in which the value of the country column contains a value not listed in the rules, Advanced Server reports an error.

edb=# INSERT INTO sales VALUES
edb-#  (40, '3000x', 'IRELAND', '01-Mar-2012', '45000');
ERROR:  no partition of relation "sales_2012" found for row
DETAIL:  Partition key of the failing row contains (country) = (IRELAND).

The following example creates the same table, but adds a DEFAULT partition. The server will store any rows that do not match a value specified in the partitioning rules for europe, asia, or americas partitions in the others partition.

CREATE TABLE sales
(
  dept_no     number,
  part_no     varchar2,
  country     varchar2(20),
  date        date,
  amount      number
)
PARTITION BY LIST(country)
(
  PARTITION europe VALUES('FRANCE', 'ITALY'),
  PARTITION asia VALUES('INDIA', 'PAKISTAN'),
  PARTITION americas VALUES('US', 'CANADA'),
  PARTITION others VALUES (DEFAULT)
);

To test the DEFAULT partition, add row with a value in the country column that does not match one of the countries specified in the partitioning constraints.

INSERT INTO sales VALUES
  (40, '3000x', 'IRELAND', '01-Mar-2012', '45000');

Querying the contents of the sales table confirms that the previously rejected row is now stored in the sales_others partition.

edb=# SELECT tableoid::regclass, * FROM sales;
    tableoid    | dept_no | part_no | country  |        date        | amount
----------------+---------+---------+----------+--------------------+--------
 sales_americas |      40 | 9519b   | US       | 12-APR-12 00:00:00 | 145000
 sales_americas |      40 | 4577b   | US       | 11-NOV-12 00:00:00 |  25000
 sales_americas |      30 | 7588b   | CANADA   | 14-DEC-12 00:00:00 |  50000
 sales_americas |      30 | 9519b   | CANADA   | 01-FEB-12 00:00:00 |  75000
 sales_americas |      30 | 4519b   | CANADA   | 08-APR-12 00:00:00 | 120000
 sales_americas |      40 | 3788a   | US       | 12-MAY-12 00:00:00 |   4950
 sales_americas |      40 | 4788a   | US       | 23-SEP-12 00:00:00 |   4950
 sales_americas |      40 | 4788b   | US       | 09-OCT-12 00:00:00 |  15000
 sales_europe   |      10 | 4519b   | FRANCE   | 17-JAN-12 00:00:00 |  45000
 sales_europe   |      10 | 9519b   | ITALY    | 07-JUL-12 00:00:00 |  15000
 sales_europe   |      10 | 9519a   | FRANCE   | 18-AUG-12 00:00:00 | 650000
 sales_europe   |      10 | 9519b   | FRANCE   | 18-AUG-12 00:00:00 | 650000
 sales_asia     |      20 | 3788a   | INDIA    | 01-MAR-12 00:00:00 |  75000
 sales_asia     |      20 | 3788a   | PAKISTAN | 04-JUN-12 00:00:00 |  37500
 sales_asia     |      20 | 3788b   | INDIA    | 21-SEP-12 00:00:00 |   5090
 sales_asia     |      20 | 4519a   | INDIA    | 18-OCT-12 00:00:00 | 650000
 sales_asia     |      20 | 4519b   | INDIA    | 02-DEC-12 00:00:00 |   5090
 sales_others   |      40 | 3000x   | IRELAND  | 01-MAR-12 00:00:00 |  45000
(18 rows)

Advanced Server does not have a way to re-assign the contents of a DEFAULT partition or subpartition:

  • You cannot use the ALTER TABLE… ADD PARTITION command to add a partition to a table with a DEFAULT rule, but you can use the ALTER TABLE… SPLIT PARTITION command to split an existing partition. Examples are shown following this bullet point list.
  • You cannot use the ALTER TABLE… ADD SUBPARTITION command to add a subpartition to a table with a DEFAULT rule, but you can use the ALTER TABLE… SPLIT SUBPARTITION command to split an existing subpartition.

Splitting a DEFAULT Partition

The following example splits a DEFAULT partition, redistributing the partition's content between two new partitions. The table was created with the CREATE TABLE sales command shown at the beginning of this section.

The following inserts rows into the table including rows into the DEFAULT partition.

INSERT INTO sales VALUES
  (10, '4519b', 'FRANCE', '17-Jan-2012', '45000'),
  (10, '9519b', 'ITALY', '07-Jul-2012', '15000'),
  (20, '3788a', 'INDIA', '01-Mar-2012', '75000'),
  (20, '3788a', 'PAKISTAN', '04-Jun-2012', '37500'),
  (30, '9519b', 'US', '12-Apr-2012', '145000'),
  (30, '7588b', 'CANADA', '14-Dec-2012', '50000'),
  (40, '4519b', 'SOUTH AFRICA', '08-Apr-2012', '120000'),
  (40, '4519b', 'KENYA', '08-Apr-2012', '120000'),
  (50, '3788a', 'CHINA', '12-May-2012', '4950');

The partitions include the DEFAULT others partition.

edb=# SELECT partition_name, high_value FROM FROM ALL_TAB_PARTITIONS;
 partition_name |             high_value
----------------+-------------------------------------
EUROPE          | FOR VALUES IN ('FRANCE', 'ITALY')
ASIA            | FOR VALUES IN ('INDIA', 'PAKISTAN')
AMERICAS        | FOR VALUES IN ('US', 'CANADA')
OTHERS          | DEFAULT
(4 rows)

The following shows the rows distributed amongst the partitions.

edb=# SELECT tableoid::regclass, * FROM sales;
 tableoid     | dept_no| part_no |   country    |        date        | amount
--------------+--------+---------+--------------+--------------------+-------
sales_americas|     30 | 9519b   | US           | 12-APR-12 00:00:00 |145000
sales_americas|     30 | 7588b   | CANADA       | 14-DEC-12 00:00:00 | 50000
sales_europe  |     10 | 4519b   | FRANCE       | 17-JAN-12 00:00:00 | 45000
sales_europe  |     10 | 9519b   | ITALY        | 07-JUL-12 00:00:00 | 15000
sales_asia    |     20 | 3788a   | INDIA        | 01-MAR-12 00:00:00 | 75000
sales_asia    |     20 | 3788a   | PAKISTAN     | 04-JUN-12 00:00:00 | 37500
sales_others  |     40 | 4519b   | SOUTH AFRICA | 08-APR-12 00:00:00 |120000
sales_others  |     40 | 4519b   | KENYA        | 08-APR-12 00:00:00 |120000
sales_others  |     50 | 3788a   | CHINA        | 12-MAY-12 00:00:00 |  4950
(9 rows)

The following command splits the DEFAULT others partition into two partitions named africa and others.

ALTER TABLE sales SPLIT PARTITION others VALUES
  ('SOUTH AFRICA', 'KENYA')
  INTO (PARTITION africa, PARTITION others);

The partitions now include the africa partition along with the DEFAULT others partition.

edb=# SELECT partition_name, high_value FROM ALL_TAB_PARTITIONS;
 partition_name |               high_value
----------------+-----------------------------------------
 EUROPE         | FOR VALUES IN ('FRANCE', 'ITALY')
 ASIA           | FOR VALUES IN ('INDIA', 'PAKISTAN')
 AMERICAS       | FOR VALUES IN ('US', 'CANADA')
 AFRICA         | FOR VALUES IN ('SOUTH AFRICA', 'KENYA')
 OTHERS         | DEFAULT
(5 rows)

The following shows that the rows have been redistributed across the new partitions.

edb=# SELECT tableoid::regclass, * FROM sales;
 tableoid      |dept_no | part_no |   country   |        date        | amount
---------------+--------+---------+-------------+--------------------+-------
sales_americas |     30 | 9519b   | US          | 12-APR-12 00:00:00 |145000
sales_americas |     30 | 7588b   | CANADA      | 14-DEC-12 00:00:00 | 50000
sales_europe   |     10 | 4519b   | FRANCE      | 17-JAN-12 00:00:00 | 45000
sales_europe   |     10 | 9519b   | ITALY       | 07-JUL-12 00:00:00 | 15000
sales_asia     |     20 | 3788a   | INDIA       | 01-MAR-12 00:00:00 | 75000
sales_asia     |     20 | 3788a   | PAKISTAN    | 04-JUN-12 00:00:00 | 37500
sales_africa   |     40 | 4519b   | SOUTH AFRICA| 08-APR-12 00:00:00 |120000
sales_africa   |     40 | 4519b   | KENYA       | 08-APR-12 00:00:00 |120000
sales_others_1 |     50 | 3788a   | CHINA       | 12-MAY-12 00:00:00 | 4950
(9 rows)

Defining a MAXVALUE Partition

A MAXVALUE partition (or subpartition) will capture any rows that do not fit into any other partition in a range-partitioned (or subpartitioned) table. If you do not include a MAXVALUE rule, any row that exceeds the maximum limit specified by the partitioning rules will result in an error. Each partition or subpartition may have its own MAXVALUE partition.

The syntax of a MAXVALUE rule is:

PARTITION [<partition_name>] VALUES LESS THAN (MAXVALUE)

Where partition_name specifies the name of the partition that will store any rows that do not match the rules specified for other partitions.

The last example created a range-partitioned table in which the data was partitioned based upon the value of the date column. If you attempt to add a row with a date that exceeds a date listed in the partitioning constraints, Advanced Server reports an error.

edb=# INSERT INTO sales VALUES
edb-#   (40, '3000x', 'IRELAND', '01-Mar-2013', '45000');
ERROR:  no partition of relation "sales" found for row
DETAIL:  Partition key of the failing row contains (date) = (01-MAR-13 00:00:00).

The following CREATE TABLE command creates the same table, but with a MAXVALUE partition. Instead of throwing an error, the server will store any rows that do not match the previous partitioning constraints in the others partition.

CREATE TABLE sales
(
  dept_no     number,
  part_no     varchar2,
  country     varchar2(20),
  date        date,
  amount      number
)
PARTITION BY RANGE(date)
(
  PARTITION q1_2012 VALUES LESS THAN('2012-Apr-01'),
  PARTITION q2_2012 VALUES LESS THAN('2012-Jul-01'),
  PARTITION q3_2012 VALUES LESS THAN('2012-Oct-01'),
  PARTITION q4_2012 VALUES LESS THAN('2013-Jan-01'),
  PARTITION others VALUES LESS THAN (MAXVALUE)
);

To test the MAXVALUE partition, add a row with a value in the date column that exceeds the last date value listed in a partitioning rule. The server will store the row in the others partition.

INSERT INTO sales VALUES
  (40, '3000x', 'IRELAND', '01-Mar-2013', '45000');

Querying the contents of the sales table confirms that the previously rejected row is now stored in the sales_others partition.

edb=# SELECT tableoid::regclass, * FROM sales;
   tableoid    | dept_no | part_no | country  |        date        | amount
---------------+---------+---------+----------+--------------------+--------
 sales_q1_2012 |      10 | 4519b   | FRANCE   | 17-JAN-12 00:00:00 |  45000
 sales_q1_2012 |      20 | 3788a   | INDIA    | 01-MAR-12 00:00:00 |  75000
 sales_q1_2012 |      30 | 9519b   | CANADA   | 01-FEB-12 00:00:00 |  75000
 sales_q2_2012 |      40 | 9519b   | US       | 12-APR-12 00:00:00 | 145000
 sales_q2_2012 |      20 | 3788a   | PAKISTAN | 04-JUN-12 00:00:00 |  37500
 sales_q2_2012 |      30 | 4519b   | CANADA   | 08-APR-12 00:00:00 | 120000
 sales_q2_2012 |      40 | 3788a   | US       | 12-MAY-12 00:00:00 |   4950
 sales_q3_2012 |      10 | 9519b   | ITALY    | 07-JUL-12 00:00:00 |  15000
 sales_q3_2012 |      10 | 9519a   | FRANCE   | 18-AUG-12 00:00:00 | 650000
 sales_q3_2012 |      10 | 9519b   | FRANCE   | 18-AUG-12 00:00:00 | 650000
 sales_q3_2012 |      20 | 3788b   | INDIA    | 21-SEP-12 00:00:00 |   5090
 sales_q3_2012 |      40 | 4788a   | US       | 23-SEP-12 00:00:00 |   4950
 sales_q4_2012 |      40 | 4577b   | US       | 11-NOV-12 00:00:00 |  25000
 sales_q4_2012 |      30 | 7588b   | CANADA   | 14-DEC-12 00:00:00 |  50000
 sales_q4_2012 |      40 | 4788b   | US       | 09-OCT-12 00:00:00 |  15000
 sales_q4_2012 |      20 | 4519a   | INDIA    | 18-OCT-12 00:00:00 | 650000
 sales_q4_2012 |      20 | 4519b   | INDIA    | 02-DEC-12 00:00:00 |   5090
 sales_others  |      40 | 3000x   | IRELAND  | 01-MAR-13 00:00:00 |  45000
(18 rows)

Please note that Advanced Server does not have a way to re-assign the contents of a MAXVALUE partition or subpartition.

  • You cannot use the ALTER TABLE… ADD PARTITION statement to add a partition to a table with a MAXVALUE rule, but you can use the ALTER TABLE… SPLIT PARTITION statement to split an existing partition.
  • You cannot use the ALTER TABLE… ADD SUBPARTITION statement to add a subpartition to a table with a MAXVALUE rule , but you can split an existing subpartition with the ALTER TABLE… SPLIT SUBPARTITION statement.