Using %ROWTYPE in record declarations v16

The %TYPE attribute provides an easy way to create a variable that depends on a column's data type. Using the %ROWTYPE attribute, you can define a record that contains fields that correspond to all columns of a given table. Each field takes on the data type of its corresponding column. The fields in the record don't inherit any of the columns' other attributes like those specified with the NOT NULL clause or the DEFAULT clause.

A record is a named, ordered collection of fields. A field is similar to a variable. It has an identifier and data type but has the additional property of belonging to a record. You must refereence it using dot notation with the record name as its qualifier.


You can use the %ROWTYPE attribute to declare a record. The %ROWTYPE attribute is prefixed by a table name. Each column in the named table defines an identically named field in the record with the same data type as the column.

<record> <table>%ROWTYPE;
  • record is an identifier assigned to the record.
  • table is the name of a table or view whose columns define the fields in the record.


This example shows how you can modify the emp_sal_query procedure from Using %TYPE in variable declarations to use emp%ROWTYPE to create a record named r_emp instead of declaring individual variables for the columns in emp:

    p_empno         IN emp.empno%TYPE
    r_emp           emp%ROWTYPE;
    v_avgsal        emp.sal%TYPE;
    SELECT ename, job, hiredate, sal, deptno
        INTO r_emp.ename, r_emp.job, r_emp.hiredate, r_emp.sal, r_emp.deptno
        FROM emp WHERE empno = p_empno;
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee # : ' || p_empno);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Name       : ' || r_emp.ename);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Job        : ' || r_emp.job);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Hire Date  : ' || r_emp.hiredate);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Salary     : ' || r_emp.sal);
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Dept #     : ' || r_emp.deptno);
    SELECT AVG(sal) INTO v_avgsal
        FROM emp WHERE deptno = r_emp.deptno;
    IF r_emp.sal > v_avgsal THEN
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee''s salary is more than the '
            || 'department average of ' || v_avgsal);
        DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Employee''s salary does not exceed the '
            || 'department average of ' || v_avgsal);
    END IF;