Commit At Most Once v5
The objective of the Commit At Most Once (CAMO) feature is to prevent the application from committing more than once.
Without CAMO, when a client loses connection after a
COMMIT is submitted, the application might not receive a reply from the server and is therefore unsure whether the transaction committed.
The application can't easily decide between the two options of:
Retrying the transaction with the same data, since this can in some cases cause the data to be entered twice
Not retrying the transaction and risk that the data doesn't get processed at all
Either of those is a critical error with high-value data.
One way to avoid this situation is to make sure that the transaction includes at least one
INSERT into a table with a unique index. However, that depends on the application design and requires application-specific error-handling logic, so it isn't effective in all cases.
The CAMO feature in PGD offers a more general solution and doesn't require an
INSERT. When activated by
bdr.commit_scope, the application receives a message containing the transaction identifier, if already assigned. Otherwise, the first write statement in a transaction sends that information to the client.
If the application sends an explicit
COMMIT, the protocol ensures that the application receives the notification of the transaction identifier before the
COMMIT is sent. If the server doesn't reply to the
COMMIT, the application can handle this error by using the transaction identifier to request the final status of the transaction from another PGD node. If the prior transaction status is known, then the application can safely decide whether to retry the transaction.
CAMO works by creating a pair of partner nodes that are two PGD nodes from the same PGD group. In this operation mode, each node in the pair knows the outcome of any recent transaction executed on the other peer and especially (for our need) knows the outcome of any transaction disconnected during
COMMIT. The node that receives the transactions from the application might be referred to as "origin" and the node that confirms these transactions as "partner." However, there's no difference in the CAMO configuration for the nodes in the CAMO pair. The pair is symmetric.
CAMO requires changes to the user's application to take advantage of the advanced error handling. Enabling a parameter isn't enough to gain protection. Reference client implementations are provided to customers on request.
To use CAMO, an application must issue an explicit
COMMIT message as a separate request, not as part of a multi-statement request. CAMO can't provide status for transactions issued from procedures or from single-statement transactions that use implicit commits.
Configuration of CAMO happens through commit scopes.
Different failure scenarios occur in different configurations.
By default, a PGL writer operates in
bdr.synchronous_commit = off mode when applying transactions from remote nodes. This holds true for CAMO as well, meaning that transactions are confirmed to the origin node possibly before reaching the disk of the CAMO partner. In case of a crash or hardware failure, a confirmed transaction might be unrecoverable on the CAMO partner by itself. This isn't an issue as long as the CAMO origin node remains operational, as it redistributes the transaction once the CAMO partner node recovers.
This in turn means CAMO can protect against a single-node failure, which is correct for local mode as well as or even in combination with remote write.
To cover an outage of both nodes of a CAMO pair, you can use
bdr.synchronous_commit = local to enforce a flush prior to the pre-commit confirmation. This doesn't work with either remote write or local mode and has a performance impact due to I/O requirements on the CAMO partner in the latency sensitive commit path.
DEGRADE ON ... TO ASYNC clause is used in the commit scope, a node detects whether its CAMO partner is ready. If not, it temporarily switches to asynchronous (local) mode. When in this mode, a node commits transactions locally until switching back to CAMO mode.
This doesn't allow COMMIT status to be retrieved, but it does let you choose availability over consistency. This mode can tolerate a single-node failure. In case both nodes of a CAMO pair fail, they might choose incongruent commit decisions to maintain availability, leading to data inconsistencies.
For a CAMO partner to switch to ready, it needs to be connected, and the estimated catchup interval needs to drop below the
timeout value of
TO ASYNC. You can check the current readiness status of a CAMO partner with
bdr.node_replication_rates provides the current estimate of the catchup time.
The switch from CAMO protected to asynchronous mode is only ever triggered by an actual CAMO transaction either because the commit exceeds the
timeout value of
TO ASYNC or, in case the CAMO partner is already known, disconnected at the time of commit. This switch is independent of the estimated catchup interval. If the CAMO pair is configured to require the current node to be the write lead of a group as configured through
enable_proxy_routing node group option. See Commit scopes for syntax. This can prevent a split brain situation due to an isolated node from switching to asynchronous mode. If
enable_proxy_routing isn't set for the CAMO group, the origin node switches to asynchronous mode immediately.
The switch from asynchronous mode to CAMO mode depends on the CAMO partner node, which initiates the connection. The CAMO partner tries to reconnect at least every 30 seconds. After connectivity is reestablished, it might therefore take up to 30 seconds until the CAMO partner connects back to its origin node. Any lag that accumulated on the CAMO partner further delays the switch back to CAMO protected mode.
Unlike during normal CAMO operation, in asynchronous mode there's no added commit overhead. This can be problematic, as it allows the node to continuously process more transactions than the CAMO pair can normally process. Even if the CAMO partner eventually reconnects and applies transactions, its lag only ever increases
in such a situation, preventing reestablishing the CAMO protection. To artificially throttle transactional throughput, PGD provides the
bdr.camo_local_mode_delay setting, which allows you to delay a
COMMIT in local mode by an arbitrary amount of time. We recommend measuring commit times in normal CAMO mode during expected workloads and configuring this delay accordingly. The default is 5 ms, which reflects a asynchronous network and a relatively quick CAMO partner response.
Consider the choice of whether to allow asynchronous mode in view of the architecture and the availability requirements. The following examples provide some detail.
This example considers a setup with two PGD nodes that are the CAMO partner of each other.
For this CAMO commit scope to be legal, the number of nodes in the group must equal exactly 2. Using ALL or ANY 2 on a group consisting of several nodes is an error because the unquantified group expression doesn't resolve to a definite pair of nodes.
If asynchronous mode is allowed, there's no single point of failure. When one node fails:
- The other node can determine the status of all transactions that were disconnected during
COMMITon the failed node.
- New write transactions are allowed. If the second node also fails, then the outcome of those transactions that were being committed at that time is unknown.
If asynchronous mode isn't allowed, then each node requires the other node for committing transactions, that is, each node is a single point of failure. When one node fails:
- The other node can determine the status of all transactions that were disconnected during
COMMITon the failed node.
- New write transactions are prevented until the node recovers.
CAMO relies on a retry loop and specific error handling on the client side. There are three aspects to it:
- The result of a transaction's
COMMITneeds to be checked and, in case of a temporary error, the client must retry the transaction.
- Prior to
COMMIT, the client must retrieve a global identifier for the transaction, consisting of a node id and a transaction id (both 32-bit integers).
- If the current server fails while attempting a
COMMITof a transaction, the application must connect to its CAMO partner, retrieve the status of that transaction, and retry depending on the response.
The application must store the global transaction identifier only for the purpose of verifying the transaction status in case of disconnection during
COMMIT. In particular, the application doesn't need another persistence layer. If the application fails, it needs only the information in the database to restart.
bdr.is_camo_partner_connected allows checking the connection status of a CAMO partner node configured in pair mode. There currently is no equivalent for CAMO used with Eager Replication.
A Boolean value indicating whether the CAMO partner is currently connected to a WAL sender process on the local node and therefore can receive transactional data and send back confirmations.
bdr.is_camo_partner_ready allows checking the readiness status of a CAMO partner node configured in pair mode. Underneath, this triggers the switch to and from local mode.
A Boolean value indicating whether the CAMO partner can reasonably be expected to confirm transactions originating from the local node in a timely manner, that is, before
TO ASYNC expires.
This function queries the past or current state. A positive return value doesn't indicate whether the CAMO partner can confirm future transactions.
This function shows the local node's CAMO partner (configured by pair mode).
bdr.wait_for_camo_partner_queue is a wrapper of
bdr.wait_for_apply_queue defaulting to query the CAMO partner node. It returns an error if the local node isn't part of a CAMO pair.
This function enables a wait for CAMO transactions to be fully resolved.
To check the status of a transaction that was being committed when the node failed, the application must use this function:
With CAMO used in pair mode, use this function only on a node that's part of a CAMO pair. Along with Eager Replication, you can use it on all nodes.
In both cases, you must call the function within 15 minutes after the commit was issued. The CAMO partner must regularly purge such meta-information and therefore can't provide correct answers for older transactions.
Before querying the status of a transaction, this function waits for the receive queue to be consumed and fully applied. This mechanism prevents early negative answers for transactions that were received but not yet applied.
Despite its name, it's not always a read-only operation. If the status is unknown, the CAMO partner decides whether to commit or abort the transaction, storing that decision locally to ensure consistency going forward.
The client must not call this function before attempting to commit on the origin. Otherwise the transaction might be forced to roll back.
node_id— The node id of the PGD node the transaction originates from, usually retrieved by the client before
COMMITfrom the PQ parameter
xid— The transaction id on the origin node, usually retrieved by the client before
COMMITfrom the PQ parameter
require_camo_partner— Defaults to true and enables configuration checks. Set to false to disable these checks and query the status of a transaction that was not a CAMO transaction.
The function returns one of these results:
'committed'::TEXT— The transaction was committed, is visible on both nodes of the CAMO pair, and is eventually replicated to all other PGD nodes. No need for the client to retry it.
'aborted'::TEXT— The transaction was aborted and isn't replicated to any other PGD node. The client needs to either retry it or escalate the failure to commit the transaction.
'in progress'::TEXT— The transaction is still in progress on this local node and wasn't committed or aborted yet. The transaction might be in the COMMIT phase, waiting for the CAMO partner to confirm or deny the commit. The recommended client reaction is to disconnect from the origin node and reconnect to the CAMO partner to query that instead. With a load balancer or proxy in between, where the client lacks control over which node gets queried, the client can only poll repeatedly until the status switches to either
For Eager All-Node Replication, peer nodes yield this result for transactions that aren't yet committed or aborted. Even transactions not yet replicated (or not even started on the origin node) might yield an
in progressresult on a peer PGD node in this case. However, the client must not query the transaction status prior to attempting to commit on the origin.
'unknown'::TEXT— The transaction specified is unknown, because either it's in the future, not replicated to that specific node yet, or too far in the past. The status of such a transaction isn't yet or is no longer known. This return value is a sign of improper use by the client.
The client must be prepared to retry the function call on error.
Consider the effect of connection pools and proxies when designing a CAMO cluster. A proxy might freely distribute transactions to all nodes in the commit group, that is, to both nodes of a CAMO pair or to all PGD nodes in case of Eager All-Node Replication).
Take care to ensure that the application fetches the proper node id. When using session pooling, the client remains connected to the same node, so the node id remains constant for the lifetime of the client session. However, with finer-grained transaction pooling, the client needs to fetch the node id for every transaction (as in the example that follows.
A client that isn't directly connected to the PGD nodes might not even notice a failover or switchover. But it can always use the
bdr.local_node_id parameter to determine which node it's currently connected to. In the crucial situation of a disconnect during COMMIT, the proxy must properly forward that disconnect as an error to the client applying the CAMO protocol.
For CAMO in
received mode, a proxy that potentially switches between the CAMO pairs must use the
bdr.wait_for_camo_partner_queue function to prevent stale reads.
This example shows what a retry loop of a CAMO-aware client application looks like in C-like pseudo-code. It expects two DSNs
partner_dsn providing connection information. These usually are the same DSNs as used for the initial call to
bdr.create_node and can be looked up in
This example needs to be extended with proper logic for connecting, including retries and error handling. If using a load balancer like PgBouncer, you can implement reconnecting by using
PQreset. Ensure that the load balancer only ever redirects a client to a CAMO partner and not any other PGD node.
In practice, we recommend an upper limit of retries. Depending on the actions performed in the transaction, other temporary errors might be possible. They need to be handled by retrying the transaction depending on the error code, similarly to the best practices on deadlocks or on serialization failures while in
SERIALIZABLE isolation mode.
Transactions protected by CAMO can contain DDL operations. However, DDL uses global locks, which already provide some synchronization among nodes. See DDL locking details for more information.
Combining CAMO with DDL imposes a higher latency and also increases the chance of global deadlocks. We therefore recommend using a relatively low
bdr.global_lock_timeout, which aborts the DDL and therefore resolves a deadlock in a reasonable amount of time.
The following DDL operations aren't allowed in a transaction block and therefore can't benefit from CAMO protection. For these, CAMO is automatically disabled internally:
- All concurrent index operations (
REINDEX SCHEMA, and
CLUSTERwithout any parameter
ALTER TABLE DETACH PARTITION CONCURRENTLY
ALTER TYPE [enum] ADD VALUE
ALTER DATABASE [db] TABLESPACE
CAMO limitations are covered on the PGD limitations page.
CAMO extends the Postgres replication protocol by adding a message roundtrip at commit. Applications have a higher commit latency than with asynchronous replication, mostly determined by the roundtrip time between involved nodes. Increasing the number of concurrent sessions can help to increase parallelism to obtain reasonable transaction throughput.
The CAMO partner confirming transactions must store transaction states. Compared to non-CAMO operation, this might require an added seek for each transaction applied from the origin.
Proper use of CAMO on the client side isn't trivial. We strongly recommend testing the application behavior with the PGD cluster against failure scenarios such as node crashes or network outages.